11 In the activity below, focus on the ethical dimension of history. Treaties are a meaningful element of Indigenous history in Canada, and we can learn much from studying them, including an ability to better understand and address the complexities and ethics of ongoing negotiations today. Investigate a historical treaty by visiting the “Treaties” category on the Indigenous Peoples Collection on The Canadian Encyclopedia , or select one discussed in the Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada article. In small groups, answer the following questions: » When and where was the treaty signed? » What is the historical context of the treaty? (What was happening at the time? What were the motivating factors for the various groups involved? What were the goals of the government? What were the goals of Indigenous signatories? You may have to do further research.) » What were the key terms of the treaty? » What were the direct consequences for the dierent parties involved in the treaty signing? » Make an ethical judgment on the fairness of your selected treaty: Do you think it was just? Why or why not? For more information on treaties, visit the Treaties in Canada Education Guide on the Historica Canada Education Portal and watch the Naskumituwin (Treaty) Heritage Minute. Investigate the dierences between treaties and land claims. Read The Canadian Encyclopedia articles Indigenous Land Claims and Comprehensive Land Claims: Modern Treaties. Ask students to work in small groups to complete the 5Ws Reading Comprehension Chart: Uncovering the Numbered Treaties , available on the Education Portal . 1914 to 1982 – Separate and Unequal Indigenous Peoples and the World Wars: Change and Continuity D uring the First and Second World War, thousands of Indigenous peoples served in the Canadian military, and most Indigenous communities participated in the war eorts on the home front. However, Indigenous experiences of the world wars — both at home and overseas — varied greatly. Although many who served were respected and accepted by the Armed Forces, many other Indigenous individuals and groups also faced discrimination and unequal treatment, both during the wars and after. The following activity asks you to compare and reflect on these experiences. part a • Compare the wartime experiences of Indigenous peoples in the First and Second World War. • Begin by reading Indigenous Peoples and the World Wars on The Canadian Encyclopedia , taking notes on your research. • Create a T-chart with “First World War” on one side, and “Second World War” on the other side. In point form, include the most important aspects of the wartime experiences for Indigenous peoples in Canada. • Based on your T-chart, identify two similarities and two dierences in the experiences of Indigenous peoples in the world wars. Discuss your reflections with a partner. part b Select an individual veteran from the Indigenous Peoples and Twentieth-Century Canadian Military History feature on the Education Portal . Use your research to write a news article about the roles and accomplishments of this individual. In your article, include the following information where available: • Role(s) and wartime experiences • Accomplishments • What their lives were like after the war • Photos or quotes if available Support students by using a guided reading approach to help them list the experiences of Indigenous peoples in both wars. Assist them with developing a written answer prior to a discussion with a partner. Ask students to read and listen to Howard Sinclair Anderson’s story on the Memory Project Veteran Stories Archive and present their findings orally or in point form. Howard Sinclair Anderson (courtesy Howard Anderson/The Memory Project/Historica Canada). Edith Monture (courtesy John Moses). Work through the criteria (see purple sidebar below) with students and reword in simplified language. Use the following criteria to assess the treaty’s fairness: » Did one or both parties sign willingly and unforced, free from violence or duress? » Did one or both parties fully understand the terms? » Was there any intentional deception or exaggeration of the facts?