14 Select an individual, protest, or activist movement from the list below with the aim of assessing historical significance (see page 8). Read the corresponding article on The Canadian Encyclopedia . Once you’ve explored the context, goals, methods, and outcomes, produce a creative rendition of the key moment of activism (short film, graphic novel, sculpture, drawing, etc.) that demonstrates specific references to historical significance. • Ipperwash Crisis • Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls in Canada • Assembly of First Nations • Van der Peet Case • Sparrow Case • Matthew Coon Come • Elijah Harper • Sandra Lovelace Nicholas • Chief Theresa Spence • Idle No More • Oka Crisis • Delgamuukw Case The historical timeframe of the activity can be extended to suit curricular goals, but be sure to confirm there are adequate resources to investigate other events. Discuss as a class what type of sources are suitable, and what the parameters are for selecting your sources. Build a list of criteria with your class to assess a source’s reliability. Introduce students to the concept of bias. Help them identify specific language that points to bias so that they may better identify it when they see it. 1980 s to Present Day – Toward Reconciliation Indigenous Activism: Historical Significance I n an attempt to achieve common goals and address grievances, Indigenous peoples have engaged in diverse forms of activism, including political organizing, peaceful protests, marches, and occupations. Concerns have included land rights, treaty commitments, health care, the environment, education, government funding, and many others. Indigenous activism has been longstanding, and there are rich historical examples, including Pontiac’s Resistance in the 1760s, the Métis Bill of Rights in 1885, the Nisga’a Land Petition of 1913, or the formation of the League of Indians in 1919. Continuing that long tradition, this activity focuses on Indigenous activism in the post-1980s period. Media Interpretations: Perspectives Investigate the ways in which either Idle No More or Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls has been presented in the media. • Collect at least three dierent news articles or news broadcasts on one of the issues, using both mainstream media and Indigenous sources (e.g., Aboriginal Peoples Television Network, Windspeaker , or First Nations Drum ). • Read each article critically, assessing the language and word choice, main points, and bias of the author, using the questions provided in the Media Interpretations Worksheet on the Education Portal . Include three examples from each article that reflect opinion or judgment. • In your own words, explain what judgment is implied. What are the similarities and dierences between these perspectives? What do these perspectives tell us about attitudes toward and perceptions of Indigenous peoples and Indigenous activism at the time they were written? T he concept of reconciliation has, in the past few years, become a focal point for Indigenous peoples, governments, and Canadians hoping to move toward a better future. But the journey toward reconciliation is complex and multifaceted. As writer, activist, and professor Dr. Niigaan Sinclair writes, “Reconciliation is dierent for every person, just as harm — and reparations to heal a harm — is always contextual, and based on the individuals and communities involved. This challenge, while daunting, is also one of the strongest features of reconciliation.” There are many issues still facing Indigenous peoples, most stemming from the legacy of historical oppression. Indigenous activists have been advocating for change for many years. Self-government, treaty rights, land claims, the environment, and human rights are common topics on forging a path forward. Cree youth walkers arrive in Ottawa (Dreamstime.com/Paul Mckinnon/30051673). Nikawiy Nitanis by Mackenzie Anderson, 2017 (courtesy Indigenous Arts & Stories and Historica Canada). Drummers and singers at Idle No More protest in Guelph, Ontario (Dreamstime.com/L.suzanne Paul/28812119).