2 P opular narratives of Canadian history have most frequently been told from the perspective of European settlers. As a result, Indigenous experiences have often been neglected or excluded from the telling of our country’s history. For a more comprehensive understanding of Canada’s history, it is important to examine it from Indigenous perspectives. Doing so requires students to explore the depth, breadth, diversity, and regional variation of experiences of Indigenous peoples in the land that is now Canada. It is also necessary to examine the legacy and consequences of colonialism and the repressive policies to which Indigenous peoples have been subjected. This guide aims to engage students in thinking critically about our historical narratives, and help them consider how both individual and collective worldviews shape — and are shaped by — history. Much of the history of Indigenous peoples in Canada in the last two centuries is characterized by institutionalized discrimination and inequity, through colonialist and assimilationist eorts such as the Indian Act and Residential Schools. However, Indigenous peoples have not been passive over this time. To the contrary, they have been active agents — acting independently and collectively to resist colonial restrictions, to preserve their traditions, languages and beliefs, and to advocate for their established but often-ignored rights. The development and production of Historica Canada’s bilingual education guides is a collaborative process that engages history educators, academic historians, and community stakeholders in content creation and lesson planning. Historica Canada is grateful to share the voices of Indigenous educators and scholars within this guide. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY Indigenous Peoples, Civilizations & Territories CONTACT TO 1763 Indigenous Peoples’ Encounters with Europeans 1763 TO 1876 Oral Histories & Biographies 1876 TO 1914 Policies & Politics 1914 TO 1982 Separate & Unequal 1980 s TO PRESENT DAY Toward Reconciliation How the Narwhal Came To Be by Alexander Angnaluak, 2017 (courtesy Indigenous Arts & Stories and Historica Canada). Morning Star by Alex Janvier, 1993 (courtesy Canadian Museum of History/VI-D-276/IMG2009- 0085-0001-Dm). T his guide is designed to align with current Canadian curricula, and has been produced for use in middle and high school history and social science classrooms. The guide is therefore not comprehensive in its coverage, focusing primarily on the history that is taught in classrooms. Teachers may wish to address topics not covered in this guide to provide a more complete understanding of Indigenous worldviews. Indigenous peoples in Canada do not represent one group or experience, but a multiplicity of perspectives, including those of Inuit, Métis, and First Nations. This education guide uses case studies as a means of exploring the diverse experiences of Indigenous peoples over a wide expanse of time, presenting multiple options for avenues of inquiry. Students are encouraged to remember that the experiences of one group are not representative of all Indigenous peoples in Canada. To further explore diverse Indigenous perspectives beyond those included in this guide, educators and students are directed to additional Historica Canada resources for more information and further classroom activities. The activities draw upon the historical thinking framework developed by Dr. Peter Seixas and the Historical Thinking Project. The guide provides classroom activities designed to promote research and analysis, engage critical thinking and communication skills, and explore the challenging ethical questions of Canadian history. Educators may want to use all of the lessons in a sequence, or choose the most relevant lessons as standalone activities. Many of the topics covered in this guide could trigger a strong emotional response, especially among youth who are aected by intergenerational trauma. Teachers must be sensitive to individuals and the group to ensure the classroom remains a safe environment for all learners. Set ground rules for respectful discussions and consult your school guidance counsellor for additional support, if needed. For more information on broaching dicult subjects in the classroom, visit the Indigenous Arts & Stories Teachers’ Kit on the Historica Canada Education Portal . Accommodations for Special Education, ELL and ESL students are included under the appropriate sections, and identified as “ modifications .” Many of the activities in this guide require more advanced reading skills. Consider pairing ELL students with stronger readers to help them better understand the content. This education guide was developed in collaboration and consultation with the following contributors: Rachel Qitsualik-Tinsley, Holly Richard, Dr. Niigaan Sinclair, Dr. WilliamWicken, and Dr. Lindsay Gibson.