3 S ince European contact, Indigenous peoples have not always been identified by terms of their own choosing. Sometimes that terminology has been derogatory and racist, and the language used reflects a colonialist point of view. This labelling of Indigenous peoples has left an indelible mark on Canadian history. Being receptive to Indigenous peoples’ preferred terminology is essential to the process of reconciliation. The language in this education guide aims to reflect the general preferences of Indigenous peoples in Canada. First Nations peoples in Canada were initially called “Indians” by colonial Europeans. “Indian” is no longer used as a term to describe Indigenous peoples, though it still serves as a legal definition. “Aboriginal,” meanwhile, is an umbrella term that includes status and non-status First Nations, as well as Métis and Inuit. “Aboriginal” and “Indigenous” are often used interchangeably, but as the current preferred term is Indigenous, it has been used throughout this Education Guide. Ceded Territory: Lands granted to a party in a treaty. Lands were often ceded as a result of military or political pressure; lands ceded in treaties were the principal means that Europeans used to acquire control over territory. In Canada, Indigenous peoples and Europeans often had dierent understandings of land ownership included in treaties. Unceded Territory: Lands originally belonging to the First People(s) that have not been surrendered or acquired by the Crown. Often refers to lands that are not formally under a treaty; however, there are regions under treaty in Atlantic Canada that encompass lands that have not been surrendered. Colonialism: A system or policy of dominance and control by one power over an area or people that often includes the exploitation of resources for the explicit purpose of benefitting the colonizing country. Colonization: The process of settling or appropriating a place and establishing a central system of power over the land and original inhabitants of the area. First Contact: The first time an Indigenous group makes a connection with Europeans. Can refer to face-to-face interaction, or to “contact” made through objects, ideas, or disease. Time Immemorial: A period of the distant past that is not defined by historical dates. Recommended articles mentioned throughout the guide ( in bold ) can be accessed by visiting the Indigenous Peoples Collection on The Canadian Encyclopedia . All supplementary worksheets (noted in bold throughout) complementing this education guide can be downloaded on the Historica Canada Education Portal . The following is a list of bilingual research resources to support educators and students. This list is not exhaustive, and you may choose to seek out supplementary resources. The Canadian Encyclopedia thecanadianencyclopedia.ca Historica Canada Education Portal education.historicacanada.ca Indigenous Arts & Stories Teachers’ Kit education.historicacanada.ca/en/tools/432 Truth and Reconciliation Co iion Reports nctr.ca/reports.php Northern Lights (Dreamstime.com/Stephan Pietzko/35443732). “ There is a world of dierence betwn being an Indian and being Anishinabe. An Indian is a creation of the European imagination and is legay inscribed on us by the federal government. There were no Indians in our teitories prior to European aival. In fact, there are only Indians in contemporary terms if the federal government is aowed to take control of Indigenous identities.” — John Borrows, Canada’s Indigenous Constitution (2010) We are One by Emlyn Cameron, 2014 (courtesy Indigenous Arts & Stories and Historica Canada). Music of the Métis by Amber Wilkinson, 2012 (courtesy Indigenous Arts & Stories and Historica Canada). Before begiing these activities with the whole cla, introduce the above terminology to students. Ask them to record key words in their personal word dictionary or notebk.