5 Working in small groups, visit Native-Land.ca , examine one of the following maps, and read the associated article on The Canadian Encyclopedia . Using your research, complete the What is Where? Why There? Why Care? Worksheet , available on the Education Portal . 1. Map: Indigenous Territories | Article: Indigenous Territory 2. Map: Indigenous Languages | Article: Indigenous Languages in Canada 3. Map: Indigenous Treaties | Article: Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada 4. Map: Provinces and Territories in present-day Canada | Article: Historical Boundaries of Canada Mapping Indigenous Civilizations and Histories T he understanding of geographical borders changes over time. Political and social change can lead to the redrawing of boundaries, and the changing of geographic names, as was the case with the creation of Nunavut as a territory in 1999. Geographical borders are also perspective-dependent. For example, the political borders of Canada’s provinces and territories do not reflect the geographical regions of traditional Indigenous lands or languages. Indigenous communities had borders between nations and communities, but these were often mobile, contextual, and under constant negotiation. It is possible to have dierent perspectives on the meaning and significance of lands and territories. discussion questions Cree man in sled with dog-team crossing Lac la Ronge to distant ice fishing haunts in northern Saskatchewan. Lac la Ronge, 1945 (courtesy Library and Archives Canada/Bud Glunz/e010962320). A Family of the MicMac Indians with their chief in Nova Scotia by Hibbert Binney, c. 1801 (courtesy Library and Archives Canada/C-003135). Totem Pole in Stanley Park, Vancouver (Dreamstime.com/Jerry Coli /45960383). A. b. The word “nation” can be contentious. Have a discussion with your class and consider the following questions: What is a nation? Does a culture have an inherent right to declare itself a nation? Does one nation have the right to rule over the nationhood of another? How can thinking of Indigenous peoples in terms of broad regional locations take away from the idea of each group’s independence and the idea of individual nationhood? After completing the worksheet in your group, present your findings to the class. After each group has shared its findings, discuss the following questions as a class or write a reflection: Native-Land.ca gives users an opportunity to explore North American Indigenous territories, languages, and treaties through maps. Ask students to share what they have learned through a $1 Summary, where they only have 10 words to describe their findings. Consider modelling an example in advance. • What are the social, political, economic, and/or environmental implications of these overlapping borders? • How have borders drawn by the Canadian government aected Indigenous peoples in the past and present? • Why do you think it is important for Canadians to be aware of the territorial history of their home regions? • How did Indigenous peoples understand borders? How did relationships between communities aect these borders?