10 part 1 - analyzing the indian act: Continuity and Change Working in pairs, read the Indian Act article on The Canadian Encyclopedia , taking notes on key changes and amendments. • What can you infer about the changes to the Indian Act over time? What patterns, if any, are revealed? • Create a timeline of the key dates and changes over time. Identify which changes indicate positive steps and which ones indicate negative steps toward recognizing First Nations’ human rights. • Have a class discussion about change and continuity, and address the various ways that the Indian Act aected the lives of First Nations peoples since 1876. option 1 Use the Historical Significance Criteria (found on page 8) to assess the most significant change to the Act, and make a case for why. part 2 - Amendment Analysis: Cause and Consequence Working in pairs, choose one of the four excerpts from amendments to the Indian Act between 1880 and 1920, found in the Indian Act Amendments Worksheet on the Education Portal . These amendments created policies that restricted the status of women, religious and cultural practices, and enforced attendance at Residential Schools. • The Act and its amendments are written using legal and technical language. Begin by identifying and defining any words you are unfamiliar with. Work together to summarize the quotes in your own words. • Further analyze your chosen quotation by addressing causes and/or consequences. Answer the following questions: » What does the amendment reveal about the goals of the Canadian government regarding Indigenous peoples? » What worldviews underlie these goals? » What were the short- and long-term consequences of this amendment? Come back together as a class to discuss the questions above. option 2 The Indian Act was created specifically to govern First Nations peoples, and did not include Métis and Inuit. Why were they excluded, and why were First Nations included? What does this reveal about how colonial governments treated Indigenous peoples? What can this reveal about the experiences of dierent groups of Indigenous peoples? Ask students to work in small groups to fill in the 5Ws Reading Comprehension Chart: The Indian Act , available on the Education Portal , to record their notes on the Indian Act article. Before the class discussion, work with students to practise sharing their points. Treaties: The Ethical Dimension I ndigenous treaties in Canada are constitutionally recognized agreements between the Crown and Indigenous peoples. They form the constitutional and moral basis of alliances between Indigenous peoples and settler governments, both British and Canadian. However, the terms of treaties have been understood dierently by the parties involved. This dierence in interpretation is rooted in diering worldviews, with distinct concepts of land ownership. Most agreements describe exchanges where Indigenous nations agree to share access to ancestral lands in return for various payments and promises. On a deeper level, treaties are sometimes understood, particularly by Indigenous people, as sacred covenants between nations that establish a relationship between those for whom Canada is an ancient homeland and those whose family roots lie in other countries. Indigenous groups have made treaties since time immemorial, and those treaties often included relationships that humans shared with non-human beings, including animals and the environment. Iroquois Chiefs from the Six Nations Reserve reading Wampum belts in Brantford, Ontario, 1871 (courtesy Library and Archives Canada/Electric Studio/C-085137). Plan of parts of Ontario and Québec showing the lands affected by the Robinson Treaty and Treaty no. 3, along with the unsurrendered land, 1901 (courtesy Library and Archives Canada/235225-1). The Two Row Wampum (Kaswentha) records the agreement made in 1613 between the Haudenosaunee and the Dutch. Both sides agreed to respect each other’s cultures and to never interfere in each other’s affairs (courtesy Six Nations Legacy Consortium and Six Nations Public Library vitacollections.ca/ sixnationsarchive/2687087 /data?n=3). Before approaching the ethical dimension, pre-teach the concept with a news story that will help students understand the historical thinking concept in advance of the activity. Visit HistoricalThinking.ca for more information about the ethical dimension. Teachers may choose to complete one or more of these activities, depending on the needs of the class. The activities can be done independently, or in sequence.